Monitoring and modelling marine zooplankton in a changing climate
作者：Lavenia Ratnarajah, Rana Abu-Alhaija, Angus Atkinson, Sonia Batten, Nicholas J. Bax, Kim S. Bernard, Gabrielle Canonico, Astrid Cornils, Jason D. Everett, Maria Grigoratou, Nurul Huda Ahmad Ishak, David Johns, Fabien Lombard, Erik Muxagata, Clare Ostle, Sophie Pitois, Anthony J. Richardson, Katrin Schmidt, Lars Stemmann, Kerrie M. Swadling, Guang Yang, Lidia Yebra
Zooplankton are major consumers of phytoplankton primary production in marine ecosystems. As such, they represent a critical link for energy and matter transfer between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton to higher trophic levels and play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles. In this Review, we discuss key responses of zooplankton to ocean warming, including shifts in phenology, range, and body size, and assess the implications to the biological carbon pump and interactions with higher trophic levels. Our synthesis highlights key knowledge gaps and geographic gaps in monitoring coverage that need to be urgently addressed. We also discuss an integrated sampling approach that combines traditional and novel techniques to improve zooplankton observation for the benefit of monitoring zooplankton populations and modelling future scenarios under global changes.
Figure 1. a Zooplankton graze on phytoplankton, transferring carbon and nutrients. Excess nutrients in zooplankton are recycled via excretion and egestion either within the upper ocean or throughout the entire water column as some zooplankton undertake diel vertical migration. Unconsumed phytoplankton form aggregates, and together with zooplankton faecal pellets, these particles rapidly sink and are exported to deeper waters. However, bacteria remineralise much of these sinking particles along its descent. b The smaller figure showcases the potential direction of change on three zooplankton processes – respiration, grazing, and excretion and egestion, under ocean warming. Studies to date show that zooplankton respiration will increase under a future warmer ocean, however the magnitude of grazing and excretion and egestion are unclear. Consequently, the magnitude of carbon exported through zooplankton-related activities under ocean warming remains unclear. This figure was designed by Dr Stacey McCormack (Visual Knowledge).